1947 - AK47
of major events
Romeet K WATT
is a delineation of all the important events in the history of
Kashmir that have led up to the current situation.
Singh purchases Kashmir from the East India Company for Rs 75,00,000
(US$ 1,79,000) under the Treaty of Amritsar of 16 March 1846, and
the state of Jammu and Kashmir, as we know it, comes into existence.
notables in Srinagar present a memorandum to the British Viceroy
regarding the Maharaja’s misrule and set forth popular demands
The movement against Dogra rule
first organized protest against the Dogra rule. 11 representatives
are chosen to conduct a movement against the Maharaja’s
repression: these include Sheikh Abdullah, Ghulam Abbas, Saaduddin
Shawl and Mirwaiz Muhammad Yusuf Shah.
mass organization in the State - the Jammu and Kashmir Muslim
Conference- established. Sheikh Abdullah is elected President and
Ghulam Abbas General Secretary.
Maharaja constitutes state legislative assembly. Muslims
constituting 77 percent of the population are allotted 32 seats in a
house of 75, out of which 21 are to be elected and 11 nominated by
the Maharaja. Muslim Conference captures 20 seats.
Ali Jinnah visits Srinagar. Jinnah counsels promotion of harmony
between the Muslim majority and the Hindu minority.
Muslim Conference session decides to convert party into National
Conference. Some prominent Hindu leaders, including Prem Nath Bazaz,
and Sham Lal Watt join the National Conference but Hindu masses
Conference issues a radical manifesto called “New Kashmir”
contemplating drastic social and economic measures - agrees to the
inclusion of one nominee of the National Conference in the
The National conference launches the
Quit Kashmir movement, directed at the Maharajah, and demands the
abrogation of the Treaty of Amritsar. Abdullah, Watt and other
leaders are arrested.
comes to Kashmir as his defense counsel, but is arrested and ordered
to leave the State. Nehru is permitted to revisit Srinagar, meets
Abdullah in jail.
August: India and Pakistan are established as sovereign states.
Standstill Agreement between Kashmir and Pakistan is signed for
continuance of existing arrangements of trade, communications and
Abdullah is released by the Maharaja’s “act of royal clemency”
Pakistan violates the Standstill Agreement by preventing essential
supplies to the State. Armed Pakistani tribesman entered Kashmir
forcing the Maharaja to flee.
October: Maharajah Hari Singh signs the Instrument of Accession,
acceding Kashmir to the Indian Union. The Indian Army enters the
state to repel Pakistani raiders. Sheikh Abdullah is appointed head
of the emergency administration. Lord
Mountbatten accepts the "Instrument of Accession" on
behalf of the British Crown.
01 November: Jinnah meets Governor General of India, Mountbatten -
alleges that Kashmir's accession to India "was not a bona fide
one since it rested on fraud and violence."
January: India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations
Security Council and offers to hold a plebiscite, under UN
supervision, after the raiders are moved back.
January: The U.N. Security Council in its resolution of establishes
the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP)
Sheikh Abdullah declares, "We the people of Jammu and Kashmir,
have thrown our lot with Indian people not in the heat of passion or
a moment of despair, but by a deliberate choice. The union of our
people has been fused by the community of ideals and common
sufferings in the cause of freedom"
Principal Delegate of Pakistan in the U.N. admits to the U.N.
Commission for India and Pakistan that the Pakistani Army had been
August: A UN commission proposes that the state's future be decided
in accordance with the will of the people.
December: Pakistan also accepts the UN resolution.
great tension, one minute before midnight, India and Pakistan
concluded a formal cease-fire agreement;
leaves 84,000 sq. km of Kashmir under Pakistani control.
Almost a year after Nehru's offer of plebiscite, the UNCIP passes a
resolution that states, "The question of accession of the state
of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through
the democratic method of free and impartial plebiscite". However,
Pakistan has yet to comply with the earlier resolution and withdraw
from the State.
October: The Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the
Constitution, ensuring a special status for Jammu and Kashmir. This
article is meant as a temporary measure, to be in effect until the
formal constitution of Jammu and Kashmir is drafted.
UN Security Council appoints Sir Owen Dixon as the UN representative
in place of UNCIP to find expeditious and enduring solution to the
India-Pakistan dispute over Kashmir.
General Council of the National Conference demands elections to
create a Constituent Assembly.
July: Violation of Kashmir cease-fire line.
Elections for the Constituent Assembly ; National Conference wins
all 45 seats unopposed
Constituent Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir is
established in office.
November: The Constituent Assembly is given four tasks by Sheikh
Abdullah which including the accession to India.
1951: Karan Singh is voted by the Constituent Assembly of the Jammu
and Kashmir State as Sardar- i-Riyasat (Governor). An interim
constitution for the state comes into effect in November.
Sangh begins campaign called "Ek Vidhan Ek Pradhan" (One
Constitution, one leader) and demands that the State of Jammu and
Kashmir be totally integrated into India. Jana Sang leader
Shyamaprasad Mukherjee dies in a Kashmiri Jail under mysterious
An agreement is arrived at on 24 July
between Sheikh Abdullah and the Government of India which provides
for the state's autonomy within India.
9 August, Sheikh Abdullah is dismissed and arrested. Bakshi Ghulam
Mohammed becomes the state's prime minister. The governments of
India and Pakistan agree to appoint a plebiscite administrator by
the end of April 1954.
state Constituent Assembly adopts a constitution for the state,
which has a provision making it an integral part of the Indian
and demonstrations across the Valley occur on 27 December when the
holy relic is found missing form the Hazratbal shrine.
holy relic is recovered on 4 January. Sheikh Abdullah is released on
8 April. Sheikh Abdullah goes to Pakistan on 25 May, at Nehru's
instance, for talks with Field Marshal Ayub Khan. Protest
demonstrations occur in Kashmir on 21 December against Articles 356
and 357 of the Constitution being extended to the state.
and Pakistan go to war after
Pakistan attacks India, in operation code named, Gibraltar. The
defeat of Pakistan results in the Tashkent Agreement between the two
April: Pakistan gifts over 2000 sq. miles of Indian Territory in
Kashmir to China under the Sino-Pak boundary agreement.
April: Pakistan launched an assault along a 60-mile front from Ding
to Chhad in the Rann of Kutch.
August: Pak infiltrators crossed into Indian territory all along the
470 mile cease fire line in Kashmir.
August: Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri holds Pakistan
responsible for sending 3,000 to 4,000 infiltrators into Kashmir and
warned of an attack if aggression did not stop.
scale uprising by the people of East Pakistan against West Pakistan
authoritarianism. Pakistan resorts to air strikes against India.
December: Indo-Pakistan war begins after a
premeditated air strike on a number of Indian airfields.
Pakistani forces surrender in two weeks and East Pakistan is
liberated to give birth to Bangladesh. Status quo is maintained on
the western front between India and Pakistan.
and Pakistan sign the Shimla agreement on 2 July. The
two agree to respect the line of control until the issue is finally
Kashmir accord is signed on 3 November by G. Parthasarthy, for
Indira Gandhi, and Mirza Mohammed Afzal Beg for Sheikh Abdullah.
24-25: Jammu and Kashmir is made a "Constituent Unit" of
India and through this accord Indian Parliament reaffirms its right
to legislate on any matter concerning the territory of the State.
Sheikh Abdullah is sworn is as chief minister with the support of
the Congress Legislature party.
Abdullah resigns after the Congress party withdraws support on 27
March. The Assembly is dissolved. On 30 June, the state goes to
elections giving the National Conference 47 out of 76 seats.
23 January, Sheikh Abdullah formally nominates his son Farooq as his
Sheikh Abdullah dies on 8 September and Farooq becomes Chief
between Farooq Abdullah and Delhi deteriorate. The National
Conference sweeps the Valley in the elections, winning 46 seats,
while Congress scores a landslide in Jammu with 26 seats. Riots
break out in Srinagar with several hundred injured. On 5-6 October,
Farooq Abdullah hosts a conclave of Indian opposition parties in
Srinagar, much to Mrs. Gandhi's anger.
Jagmohan is appointed Governor in April and Farooq Abdullah's
government is dismissed on 2 July. His brother-in-law, G.M. Shah is
sworn in as Chief Minister. The Shah government is dismissed on 7
March. By November Farooq is back in power, after coming to an
agreement with Rajiv Gandhi. This alliance loses both the National
Conference and the Congress party considerable support in the
Butt, head of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, is hanged in
the Tihar jail in Delhi
one of the most shameful acts of religious massacre, several ancient
historical Hindu temples are destroyed and scores of Hindus were
killed in the city of Anantnag
Muslim United Front comes into being in January when various Islamic
organizations come together to oppose the National
Conference-Congress electoral alliance. Farooq wins the elections in
March but faces allegations of rigging.
begin in the valley along with anti India demonstrations. At least
ten people are killed in police firing, the protests continue and
there is curfew in the Valley in August.
violence begins when two bombs are thrown at the police. The
incident is followed by grenade attacks by militants. In July,
General K V. Krishna Rao becomes governor and in August, Yusuf
Halwai, a National Conference worker, is shot dead by militants. On
8 December, within days of V P Singh becoming Prime Minister,
Rubaiya Sayeed, daughter of the home minister, Mufti Mohammed Sayeed,
is kidnapped by the JKLF. On 13 December, Rubaiya is released in
exchange for five JKLF leaders whose release from prison results in
victory celebrations in Srinagar. Two days later there is curfew in
the Valley after the police kills five people in firing.
Jagmohan is appointed Governor for a second time on 19 January;
Farooq resigns. On 20 January, 35 people are killed when protesters
are fired upon from both sides of the Gawakadal bridge. The violence
continues, and on 13 February Lassa Koul, director of Srinagar
Doordarshan, is killed by militants. In March, a mass exodus of
Kashmiri Pundits takes place. Massive protest marches continue in
Srinagar. The security forces try to stop them with police firing
and more people are killed. On 21 May, Jagmohan resigns as governor
and Girish Chandra Saxena, a former head of India's foremost
intelligence agency RAW (Research and Analysis Wing) is appointed
violence continues, becoming endemic. A situation of virtual civil
war now exists in the Valley.
On 26 January, the BJP's Ekta Yatra (march for unity) is allowed to
hoist the National Flag in Lal Chowk, under total curfew and massive
January forty people are killed in Sopore by security forces that
burn down a section of the town after two of their men are killed.
In March, General K V Krishna Rao becomes Governor again. In October
security forces surround militants inside the Hazratbal mosque.
After several days of siege, security forces open fire on protesters
in Bij Behara killing sixty people.
Minister Narasimha Rao tries to start a political process in the
Valley by releasing militant leaders like Yasin Malik and Shabir
Shah. There is increasing evidence of foreigners entering the Valley
in support of the militant movement. Also, evidence that it is
turning into a larger Islamic 'jihad'.
and Kashmir declared backward state under the new industrial policy,
entrepreneurs exempted from income tax by 5 years. In May
Chrar-e-Sharief town is set ablaze along with the 14th century
Chrar-e-Sharief shrine by militants led by a foreign mercenary Mast
Gul. In July, 5 foreign tourists are abducted from Pahalgam by a
militant group (Al Faran).
March during an encounter with security forces at Hazratbal, 33 top
militants are killed. In April elections for 6 parliamentary seats
are held successfully. In September election to the State Assembly
are conducted successfully. Separatists boycott the elections; voter
turn-out is poor.
In Jan, Govt announced setting up of a State Human Rights
Commission. In Feb, Rs 7200 crore ( US $ 1714.28 million ) economic
package is announced for J&K. In Mar, elections to the
Legislative Council were held with National Conference winning all
but one seat, which went to BJP.
In Jan 23 Kashmiri Hindus are killed by militants at Wandhama
village in Srinagar District. In May, India and Pakistan explode
nuclear devices to establish their status as Nuclear powers in the
region. Percentage of foreign militants killed goes up to 47 percent
in 1998, there by indicating a sense of despondency in Pak ISI and
Pro Pakistan groups.
contained war broke between India and Pakistan in Kargil region
after a successful military operation of gurillas in Kashmir. Due to
international pressure both countries again did ceasefire.
is a delineation of all the important events in the history of
Kashmir that have led up to the current situation.
Parvez Musharraf visited India to meet Indian Prime Minister Atal
Bihari Vajpayee for the Summit talks in Agra. The nation watched in
disappointment as the Summit was declared a failure but the people
of Kashmir continue to hope each time the leaders meet to decide the
lives of thousands of innocent lives.
year has seen heightened tension between India and Pakistan over the
issue of Kashmir; diplomatic level is at low ebb with western
nations trying to broker peace and end hostilities. India has
refused to talk until cross-border terrorism is stopped by Pakistan.
The year has seen gruesome massacres in J&K.
the backdrop of non-participation by the separatists organization
– APHC – the elections to the state legislative assemble take
place in four-phases starting from 16th of this month.
Committee led by Ram Jethmalani holds dialogues with the
separatist’s organizations but fails to convince them to
participate in the elections.